# Introduction

Author

Jeffrey R. Stevens

Published

January 23, 2023

Let’s go to R’s console, which is the direct connection to the R engine. In the console, you give R a command, and it returns the output.

## Numerical operations

R can be a very fancy calculator. Let’s do some calculations by entering numerical operations into the console. How many seconds are there in a year?

``60 * 60 * 24 * 365``
``[1] 31536000``

On average, how many days are in each month of a leap year?

`` 366 / 12``
``[1] 30.5``

## Text

R also can store, manipulate, and return text. But working with text requires wrapping the characters in quotation marks (either " or '). Type this out and replace `<name>` with your name: `"My name is <name>!"`.

``"My name is Jeff!"``
``[1] "My name is Jeff!"``

You can also apply functions to text. If we want to yell our names, let’s convert the string of characters to upper case with the `toupper()` function. Put the previous text inside the parentheses of `toupper()`.

``toupper("My name is Jeff!")``
``[1] "MY NAME IS JEFF!"``

Press the up arrow ⬆️ to place previous commands in the console. Navigate to the previous command and change the text a bit.

## Packages

If you haven’t already, install the `{palmerpenguins}` and `{tidyverse}` packages. Remember how to do that?

``install.packages(c("palmerpenguins", "tidyverse"))``

Let’s look at the `penguins` data set. What do we need to do first?

``library(palmerpenguins)``

View the data set by typing `penguins` into the console.

``penguins``
``````# A tibble: 344 × 8
species island    bill_length_mm bill_depth_mm flipper_length_mm body_mass_g
<fct>   <fct>              <dbl>         <dbl>             <int>       <int>
1 Adelie  Torgersen           39.1          18.7               181        3750
2 Adelie  Torgersen           39.5          17.4               186        3800
3 Adelie  Torgersen           40.3          18                 195        3250
4 Adelie  Torgersen           NA            NA                  NA          NA
5 Adelie  Torgersen           36.7          19.3               193        3450
6 Adelie  Torgersen           39.3          20.6               190        3650
7 Adelie  Torgersen           38.9          17.8               181        3625
8 Adelie  Torgersen           39.2          19.6               195        4675
9 Adelie  Torgersen           34.1          18.1               193        3475
10 Adelie  Torgersen           42            20.2               190        4250
# ℹ 334 more rows
# ℹ 2 more variables: sex <fct>, year <int>``````

## Plot data

Excellent! We now have wrangled the data to where we want it. Let’s say we want to make a scatterplot of the bill length vs. the bill depth for all birds. We need to use the `plot()` function for this.

``plot(bill_length_mm ~ bill_depth_mm, data = penguins)``

Hey, hey! We have a plot! 📊 Sweet! We’ve input data, wrangled it, and plotted it. Well done! 🎉 💪